Mughal Invasion and battle between Rana Sanga and Babur

Mughal Invasion and battle between Rana Sanga and Babur - Babur was the first Mughal emperor to invade upon India.

Babur founded the Mughal empire in India, after defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526 CE.

And this Mughal Empire ruled upon India for around 300 years. Babur was born at a place called Fergana in 1483 CE. His father’s name was Umar Sheikh Mirza and Qutlugh Nigar Khanum was his mother.

mughal invasion and battle between rana sanga and babur

Umar Sheikh Mirza was died in the year 1494 CE and after his death, Babur became the ruler of his paternal kingdom of Fergana at an early age of 11.

But because of some unfavourable circumstances and issues, his rule could not sustain there. And finally, to achieve and gain permanent rule, Babur decided to invade and conquer India.

Babur invaded upon India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat, which held in the year 1526 CE.

At the time of his invasion, Maharana Sanga, who is famous by the name of Maharana Sangram Singh I, was the most powerful ruler of India and soon after the invasion of Babur, a struggle started between both Sanga and Babur.

Struggle between Rana Sanga and Babur


The main reasons for the struggle between both the ruler were as follows:

1. Blaming on Sanga for not keeping his promise – In Babur’s autobiography “Tuzk e Babri”, which   is written in the Turkish language.

Babur had written that, “Sanga sent an ambassador to me in Kabul and asked to invade Delhi, and at the same time, Sanga had promised to himself invade Agra, but he did not adhere to his promise.

When I had occupied Delhi and Agra, even after this, there were no responsive signs from the side  of Sanga.”

mughal invasion and battle between rana sanga and babur

But blaming on Sanga to inviting Babur from Kabul to come India to invade Delhi does not seem     to have any logic, because earlier Sanga himself alone had defeated Ibrahim Lodi twice.

2. Clash of Ambition: Both Babur and Sanga were ambitious rulers. After achieving victory upon Ibrahim Lodi, Babur wanted to occupy the entire India.

But for this he had to defeat “Hindupat” (Hindu chief) Sanga. Both the rulers were in northern India and it was just like two swords present in a single sheath.

3. Friendly relations between Rajput and Afghan: After getting defeated in the Battle of Panipat by Babur, yet Afghans were making efforts to oust Babur from India.

The Afghan leaders found Maharana Sanga perfect for this task, so, Hasan Khan Mewati and Mahmud Lodi, the brother of Ibrahim Lodi reached to the heaven of Maharana Sanga.

The joining of Rajput and Afghans became the reason of terror for Babur. And finally, he decided to eliminate the increasing power of Sanga.

4. Conquering of the Sultanate Regions by Sanga: Sanga took the advantage of the maladministration prevailed in the Sultanate region because of the defeat of Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat.

Sanga conquered Khandar Fort (near Ranthambore) and the nearby 200 villages, because of that the Muslim families settled there were forced to go away.

Also read: Story of Maharana Kumbha

Both the rulers started to increase their military power and strengthening their respective position after realizing the possibility of struggle in future.

To increase the power of Babur, the Mughal army occupied Gwalior, Bayana and Dholpur. And on the other side, Maharana Sanga also invited various leaders.

Such as the Afghan leaders Mahmud Lodi and Hasan Khan Mewati, Maldeo of Marwar, Raja Bharmal of Idar, Prithviraj of Amer, Rawal Udai Singh of Wagad, Viramdeo Medatia.

And Rawal Ratan Singh of Salumbar, Rawat Bagh Singh of Devaliya, Medini Rai of Chanderi, Jhala Ajja of Sadari and Kunwar Kalyanmal of Bikaner reached there with their armies.

mughal invasion and battle between rana sanga and babur

Sanga reached Bayana in February 1527 CE, at that time, Mehndi Khwaja was appointed as the fort keeper of the fort of Bayana by Babur.

Maharana Sanga surrounded the fort and because of it the Mughal army gets frightened and their condition became awful.

After getting information of this enclosure, Babur sent an army under the leadership of Mohammad Sultan Mirza, to protect the fort, but the Rajput army defeated that army which was sent by Babur

And also defeated the army, which is present in the fort and capture the fort of Bayana. Victory of Bayana was an important victory of Maharana Sanga against Babur.

Babur was busy in the preparation of war, but he was also worried as he heard about the bravery and valour of the Maharana Sanga and the Rajput army by Shah Mansoor Kismati and all other who returned from there.

At that time, Mohammad Sharif, a Muslim astrologer predicted, “The planet of Mars is in the west, so those who will fight from the east, will be defeated.”

The condition of the Mughal army was very bad and there a hopeless environment prevailed all around. Witnessing this, Babur made efforts to encourage his soldiers by taking an oath never to drink liquor again.

And he broke the precious pitchers and cups, which was used by him to drink liquor and distributed them among poor.

In order to infatuate the religious sentiments of the soldiers, he said, “Chieftains and soldiers! Every person, who comes into this world, dies definitely. When we will die, only God will remain.

Whosoever will engage in material comfort of life, he will have to die also. Whosoever enters in this worldly inn, has also to exit one day.

Therefore, it is better to die prestigiously, instead of living a disrespectable life. I also wish that it would be better if I meet a glorious death, because the body is perishable.

mughal invasion and battle between rana sanga and babur

The Lord has blessed us a lot because if we die in this battle, we will be renowned as martyrs, and if we win, we will be called Gazi.

Therefore, every one of us should take the Holy Quran in his hand and pledge that while staying alive, no one should even think of fleeing away from the battle field.”

Along with the speech, Babur also sent a proposal of alliance to Maharana Sanga through Salhadi Tanwar, the chieftain of Raisen.

The Maharaja talked about the proposal with the chieftains, but the mediation of Salhadi was not accepted by them.

And after witnessing the strength of their army and weakness of Babur, they rejected the proposal of alliance.

Babur took the advantage of these talks and continued his war preparation in a fast way and reached the battlefield of Khanwa.

In the first, the Rajput fought with bravery and stood victorious, but suddenly a blow of an arrow injured Maharana Sanga and he was forced to leave the battlefield.

To continue the battle, the chieftains requested Rawal Ratan Singh Churawat of Salumbar to head the army. But he denied.

And said that, his ancestors had left the state of Mewar, therefore he could not assume the national symbol of the state for even a single moment.

But he would fully support whosoever assumed that national symbol and would fight against the enemy till the time he remained alive.
mughal invasion and battle between rana sanga and babur

After this, Jhala Ajja seated on the elephant and the battle was continued. The Rajput army decided to fight till their last breath, but they could not sustain the Babur’s army and got defeated.

After standing victorious in this battle, Babur got the title of Gazi, and as the symbol of victory, he built a minaret of the heads of Rajput soldiers.

Reasons for Sanga’s defeat


1. The horse army of Babur dominated the elephant army of the Rajputs because of their momentum.

2. Sanga made a big mistake by sitting on an elephant because of which he was clearly visible to his enemy and got injured. As he went away injured from the battlefield, the moral of his army declined.

3. The coordination and the unity were very less among the Rajput army because the entire army was organised under the leadership of different chieftains.

4. Another big mistake was that the Rajput soldiers were fighting with their traditional weapons and they could not defeat Babur’s cannons with their bows and arrows.

5. According to Gaurishankar Ojha, the major reason for Sanga’s defeat was not entering into the war immediately after the victory on Bayana and giving enough time to Babur for the preparation of war.

Result of Battle of Khanwa


1. The dominion of Rajputs came to an end in India. The splendid sun of the Rajputs, which was dazzling in the sky above the people now began to setting down.

2. The Rajput organization which was formed because of the power and prestige of Mewar ended with this defeat.

mughal invasion and battle between rana sanga and babur

3. Babur became the permanent ruler of India and the Mughal empire established in India.
After the battle of Khanwa

When the battle of Khanwa ended, injured Sanga was taken to Baswa. When he regained the sense, he became very unhappy after hearing about their defeat in the war.

When Rana was proceeding towards Chanderi to avenge his defeat from Babur, his chieftains, who were against the war gave him poison in the food.

And when the poison became effective, Sanga died at the age of 46 on 30th January 1528 CE at a place called Kalpi. According to Amarkavya Vanshavali, Sanga’s last rituals were performed in Mandalgarh.

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